Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Lizzie Borden (July 19, 1860Ã¢â¬âJune 1, 1927), also known asÃ Lizbeth Borden or Lizzie Andrew Borden, is famousÃ¢â¬âor infamousÃ¢â¬âfor allegedly murdering her father and stepmother in 1892. She was acquitted, but the murders are memorialized in a childrens rhyme: Lizzie Borden took an axeAnd gave her mother forty whacksAnd when she saw what she had doneShe gave her father forty-one. Fast Facts: Lizzie Borden Known For: Accused of killing her father and stepmother with an axÃ Born: July 19, 1860 in Fall River, MassachusettsParents: Andrew Jackson Borden, Sarah Anthony, Abby Durfee Gray (stepmother)Died: June 1, 1927 in Fall River, MassachusettsEducation: Morgan Street School, high schoolNotable Quote: Maggie, come quick! Fathers dead. Somebody came in and killed him. Early Life Lizzie Borden was born on July 19, 1860, in Fall River, Massachusetts, the third of three children born to Andrew Jackson Borden (1822Ã¢â¬â1892) and Sarah Anthony Morse Borden (1823Ã¢â¬â1863). The eldest was Emma Lenora Borden (1851Ã¢â¬â1927). A middle child, a daughter, died in infancy. In 1865, Andrew Borden remarried to Abby Durfree Gray (1828Ã¢â¬â1892), and the couple and their daughters lived mostly quietly and uneventfully until 1892. Lizzie attended the Morgan Street School, which was not far from her home, and the local high school. After graduating, she was active at church by way of teaching Sunday school and serving as secretary of the local Christian Endeavor Society. She was also a member of the Womans Christian Temperance Union and dabbled in the Ladies Fruit and Flower mission. In 1890, Lizzie briefly traveled abroad with some friends. Family Conflict Andrew Borden started out his business career as an undertaker but bought rental properties and went into banking and textile mills as well. At the time of his death, he was a bank president and a director of several textile mills, and estimates said he was worth about $300,000 (about $8.5 million in 2019), not counting his real estate. He was, however, known for being miserly with his money. In contrast to the fathers wealth, the house they lived in was small and shabby, not in the part of town where the rest of Fall River elite society lived, and had neither electricity or indoor plumbing. In 1884 when Andrew gave his wifes half-sister a house, his daughters objected and fought with their stepmother, refusing thereafter to call her mother and calling her simply Mrs. Borden instead. Andrew tried to make peace with his daughters. InÃ 1887, he gave them some funds and allowed them to rent out his old family home: at the time of the murders, Lizzie had a small weekly income and $2,500 in a bank account (what would be $70,000 today). Lizzies Difficulties According to various accounts, Lizzie was mentally disturbed. She was known to be a kleptomaniacÃ¢â¬âlocal shopkeepers would check for missing objects after she had been in and send a bill to her father, who paid them. And in 1891, Abbys jewelry box was rifled, after which her father bought locks for his bedroom door. In July 1892, Lizzie and her sister Emma went to visit some friends; Lizzie returned and Emma remained away. In early August, Andrew and Abby Borden were struck with an attack of vomiting, and Mrs. Borden told someone that she suspected poison. John Morse, the brother of Lizzies mother, came to stay at the house. Morse and Andrew Borden went into town together on the morning of August 4. Andrew came home alone. Killings The reconstruction of the crime found that around 9:30 a.m. on August 4, 1892, Abby was hacked to death with an ax, interrupted while she was in the guest bedroom. Andrew arrived about an hour later, met Lizzie and the maid at the door, and went to sleep on the sofa in the sitting room. He was killed, also hacked to death, at roughly 10:45 a.m. The maid, who had earlier been ironing and washing windows, was taking a nap when Lizzie called her to come downstairs. Lizzie said she had been in the barn and returned to find her father dead. After the doctor across the street was called, Abbys body was found. Because Andrew died without a will, his estate went to his daughters, not to Abbys heirs. Lizzie Borden was arrested in the killings. The Trial Lizzie Bordens trial began on June 3, 1893. It was widely covered by the local and national press. Some Massachusetts feminists wrote in Bordens favor. Townspeople split into two camps. Borden did not testify, having told the inquest that she had been searching the barn for fishing equipment and then eating pears outside during the time of the murders. She said, I am innocent. I leave it to my counsel to speak for me. Evidence included a report that shed tried to burn a dress a week after the murders (a friend testified it had been stained with paint)Ã and reports that she had tried to buy poison just before the murders. The murder weapon was never found for certainÃ¢â¬âa hatchet head that may have been washed and deliberately made to look dirty was discovered in the cellar. No blood-stained clothes were found. Without direct evidence of Lizzie Bordens part in the murder, the jury was not convinced of her guilt. She was acquitted on June 20, 1893. After the Trial Although the towns social elite supported Lizzie during the trial, they cooled to her after the acquittal. Lizzie remained in Fall River, but she and Emma bought a new and bigger home in the elite part of town that she called Maplecroft, and she began calling herself Lizbeth instead of Lizzie. She dropped her club and charity work and began attending theater performances in Boston. She and Emma had a falling out in 1904 or 1905, possibly over Emmas displeasure at Lizzies friends from the theater crowd. Both Lizzie and Emma also took in many pets and left part of their estates to the Animal Rescue League. At the time of her death, Lizzie was a very wealthy woman; her estate was worth approximatelyÃ $250,000, the equivalent of about $7 million in 2019 dollars. Death At the age of 66, Lizzie Borden died of pneumonia in Fall River, Massachusetts, on June 1, 1927, her legend as an accused murderer is still strong. Her sister Emma died a few days later, at her home in Newmarket, New Hampshire. They were both buried next to their father and stepmother. The home in which the murders took place opened as a bed-and-breakfast in 1992. Legacy The World Catalog lists 1,200 entries dedicated to Lizzie Borden, including 580 books, 225 articles, 120 videos, and 90 theatrical pieces, the latter including ballets, operas, plays, television and movie scripts, and musical scores. Google Scholar lists over 4,500 entries, including 150 in 2018 alone. There are other accused and convicted murderers who attract more attention, of course, but there is a seemingly unending fascination with this particular story, primarily speculation about why this Victorian middle-class woman may have killed her family. Among all the literature, books, movies and other forms of art, postulated possible and impossible hypotheses about why or whether Lizzie Borden did hack her parents to death include:Ã She was criminally insane, with a dual personality like Jekyll and Hyde.She was irresponsible and ill, and hysteric in the Victorian sense.She was a free spirit who was oppressed by Victorian values.She adored her father who infantilized her, and one day she snapped.She was physically abused by her father and stepmother.She was a victim of incest.She was angry because she missed exercising the social standing she felt she deserved.Her father killed her stepmother and then Lizzie killed him because of it.Somebody else did it (a stranger; a rejected suitor; her uncle; the maid).Her stepmother broke up Lizzies relationship with a lover.She was involved in a lesbian affair with the maid and the parents found out.She was in love with her sisters suitor.For the money. Sources Bartle, Ronald (2017).Ã Lizzie Borden and the Massachusetts Axe Murders. Sherfield-on-Loddon, Hampshire: Waterside Press.Kent, David and Robert A. Flynn. The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook. Boston: Branden Books, 1992.Lincoln, Victoria. A Private Disgrace: Lizzie Borden by Daylight: (A True Crime Fact Account of the Lizzie Borden Ax Murders). Seraphim Press, 1967.Robertson, Cara W. Representing Miss Lizzie: Cultural Convictions in the Trial of Lizzie Borden. Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 351 (1996): 351Ã¢â¬â416. Print.Roggenkamp, Karen S. H. A Front Seat to Lizzie Borden: Julian Ralph, Literary Journalism, and the Construction of Criminal Fact. American Periodicals 8 (1998): 60-77. Print.Schofield, Ann. Lizzie Borden Took an Axe: History, Feminism and American Culture. American Studies 34.1 (1993): 91Ã¢â¬â103. Print.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ã¢â¬Å"Lizzie Borden.Ã¢â¬ Ã EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, 15 July 2018.Ã¢â¬Å"Lizzie Borden.Ã¢â¬ Ã Famous Trials .
Sample details Pages: 29 Words: 8769 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? ROLE STRESS AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT STRESS AND JOB PERFORMANCE People react to stress in different ways. Some copy much better than others and suffering fewer of the harmful effects of stress. Just as stress differs as a function of the individual, it also differs as a function of ones type of occupation. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Role stress and performance management" essay for you Create order Some occupations are, of course, inherently more stressful than others. All of the stress-strain-health relationships have an obvious impact on the organization and industry. Both physical and mental illness renders the employee unlit for work, and combine both to lessen the satisfaction obtained from work and reduce job performance and productivity levels. There are various ways that stress symptoms or outcomes are reflected in the workplace. Evidence from a growing body of research suggests that certain individuals, in a variety of occupations, are increasingly exposed to unacceptable levels of job-related stress (Schultz Schultz, 2002). Occupational stress is any discomfort which is felt and perceived at a personal level and triggered by instances, events or situations that are too intense and frequent in nature so as to exceed a persons coping capabilities and resources to handle them adequately (Malta, 2004) Occupational stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources or need of the worker (Sauter and Murphy. 1999). Performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the organization or system that one works in. Each individual is exposed to a range of stressors both at work and in their personal lives which ultimately affect his or her performance. Pressure at work can be positive leading to increased productivity. However, when this pressure becomes excessive it has a negative impact. The individual perceive themselves as being unable to cope and not to possess the necessary skills to combat their stress. Stress is acknowledged to be one of the main causes of absence from work (Mead, 2000). The occupational stressors can be categorized into four major groups. Firstly, the working conditions, including shift and week-end work, inadequate remuneration, hours of work, discrimination and safety at the work environment. Secondly, relationship at work including quality of relationships with peers, subordinates and supervisors. Thirdly, role conflicts and ambiguity including ill-defined role, functions, expectations, and duties. Fourthly, organization structure and climate which includes communication policy and practice, major changes in the workplace, culture of the organization, and lack of participation in decision-making. Another cause is career development including under utilization of skills or failing to reach full potential. Another contributing factor is the nature of the job which might amount to an immense amount of physical and emotional exhaustion (Parikh Taukari, 2004) The main objective of this study is to identify role of different contributing factors of job stress and to investigate level of stress on those factors in the organization. And also to find that how job performance is affected by job stress. There are different factors of job stress i.e. work overload, work under load, supervision role conflicts, career development, physical environment repetitive work, work family conflict and coworkers. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES There is difference in level of occupational stress among the employees of different departments of the organization. High level of stress adversely affects the performance of the employees. STRESS AT WORLKPLACE (OCCUPATIONAL STRESS) In todays changing and competitive work environment stress level is increasing both in WORKERS as well as MANAGERS .As a result of this work stress, more and more managers are showing signs of chronic fatigue and burnout. Research has concluded that stressed out managers are not good for organization and shareholders also .In most case stress reduced efficiency among individuals as well as reduced productivity also. Stress is the problem in amongst all the countries of the world ,irrespective of whether the economy is strong or weak .To know about the actual work stress we should have to know about the behavior of the individuals ,causes of the stress, its consequences and then how it can be reduce . Considered from an individual`s points of view stress is our body`s physical, mental and chemical reaction to circumstance that frighten, confuse, endanger or irritate to any person. If controlled stress, is a friend that strengthens us for the next encounter .if handled poorly, it becomes an enemy which can cause diseases like high blood pressure, ulcer, asthma, and over reactive thyroid. As per the medical explanation of the term Stress is the body`s general response to environment situations. it can lead to Physiological discomfort. Some kind of emotional unhappiness. Strained relationship with other people. In very simple words stress refers to an individual`s reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Different discipline and different professional have viewed it differently. Agarwala at 1979 believed that the confusion in definition is primarily due to the fact that the same term is used variously by scholars of different disciplines .Thus, in physic, stress is a force which acts on a body to produce strain. According to Beehr and Newman Job stress is a condition arising from the interaction of the people and their jobs, and characterized by changes within people and force them to deviate from their normal functioning. Stress can be defined as Bodys non specific response to any demand made on it. Stress is not by definition synonymous with nervous system tension or anxiety. On one side Stress provides the means to express talents and energies and pursue happiness, on the other side it can also cause exhaustion and illness, either physical or psychological One of the common accepted views of stress is provided by Selye through THREE STAGE MODEL OF STRESS. He called it General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Selye defines stress as an adoptive response to the external situation that results in physical, physiological, and behavioural deviation for organizational participant. He has suggested a three stage model and states that when an organism is confronted with a threat the general physiological response occurs in the three stages . Selye said that There can be up to three phases that our resistance levels go through when we are exposed to a stressor. The first is the alarm phase. The bodys resistance to physical damage drops for a short-time. This is so our bodies can prepare to cope with the stressor by using up available energy and normally protective stress hormones. Temporarily some of our defenses against physical damage drop so that our blood pressure increases, blood-sugar rises, muscle tension increases, we breathe faster and deeper and we get a surge of adrenaline-like substances to give us extra physical capabilities should we need them. If the stressor no longer exists the body returns to its normal level of resistance. However if the stressor persists, (we cant fight or flee from it or and this goes beyond his original thinking we are unable to apply counteracting psychosocial resources) our level of resistance increases beyond normal, relaxed levels When our bodies start to run in higher gear. High levels of stress hormones continue to help us cope with the stressor. This is appropriately called the resistance phase. If there is no relief the body can continue for days, weeks, even years until either the stressor is suddenly removed or because it is very energy-consuming our body collapses often with more dangerous and extreme physical reactions. They are the same as in the alarm phase only more intense and more relentless. It is here in this third or exhaustion phase that our health suffers or even death can occur. Our level of resistance to physical disorder, disease and psychological pressure is at its lowest. It is characterized by feelings of lethargy an absence of energy and bodily resources to cope. MEASUREMENT OF ROLE STRESS: In the context of India two measures have been developed by Indian researchers and have been extensively used in research in India. They are given below: ORGANIZATIONAL ROLE STRESS: This instrument developed by Pareek (1983) this instrument based on the key concept t understand the integration of the organization .It is through this role that the individual interacts and gets integrated with the system. An n organization can be defined as system of roles, where role has been defined by the expectations various significant persons, including himself / herself, have from that position. The concept of role and the related concepts of role space and role set have a built- in potential for conflict and stress (Pareek 1999). From the point of view of an individual, two role systems are important: Role Space and Role Set. ROLE SPACE:- Each individual occupies and plays several roles simultaneously. A person can be a son a father a member of a club and so on at the same time. All these roles constitute role space time. All these roles constitute role space. In the center of the role space is the self. Role space is the self. Role space thus can be defending as the dynamic inter-relationship between the self various roles an individual occupies. ROLE SET;- The individual`s role in the organization is defined by the expectations of other significant roles and those of the individual himself .thus the role set is the pattern of relationship between the role being considered and other roles. The organization role stress scale consists of 50 items measuring ten different types of organizational role stresses. These roles stress are Following: Inter role distance (IRD):-it is expected when there is a conflict between organizational and non organizational roles. Role stagnation (RS):- it is the feeling of being stuck in same role. Role expectation conflict (REC):- Stress is generated by expectation of different significant persons such as superior , subordinate, and peers ,about the same role and the role occupant`s ambivalence as to whom to please. Role Erosion (RE); Here stress is the function of the role occupant`s feeling that some function which should properly belong to her role are transferred to some other role. Role Overload (RO) ; when the role occupant feels that there are too many expectations from her. Role Isolation (RI); Stress refer to the psychological distance between the occupant role and other roles in the same role set. Personal Inadequacy; It arises when the role occupant feels that he does not have the necessary skills and training for effectively performing the function expected from his role. Self Role Distance (SRD):- When the role the person occupies goes against his self concept. Role Ambiguity (RA):- It refers to the lack of clarity about the expectation of the role. Resource Inadequacy (RIN):- Stress is evident when the role occupant feels that he is not provided with the adequate resources for performing the function expected from his role. SOURCES OF STRESS It has been said that stress result form a misfits between environmental demands and personal adequacies to meet these demands .However, management of stress is not possible unless the individual is aware of the specific source of stress. Stress can be emanating from variety of sources. Pestonjee (1983) has identified three important sectors of life in which stress originates .These are (a) Job and organization (b) Social Factors (c) Inter Psychic sector .The first namely , job and organization, refers to totality of the work environment (task ,atmosphere, colleagues , compensations, policies ,etc.)The social factors refer to the social / culture context of life .It may include religion, caste, language, dress and other factors. The intra psychic sector encompasses those things which are intimate and personal like temperament, values, abilities, and health. It is contended that stresses can originate in any of these sectors or in combinations thereof. Factor intrinsic to the Job: These are related to poor working conditions shift work, long hours, poor technology, travel, risk and danger, work over load. Role in the organization: When a persons role in an organization is clearly defined and understood, and when expectation place upon the individual are also clear and non- conflicting, stress can be kept to a minimum. Ivancevich and Matteson (1980) have identified three critical factors- role ambiguity ,role conflict , and degree of responsibility for others are major source of stress. Relation -ship at work: The working relationship which one has with people working in the same organization can also be a major source of stress. Career Development : A host of issue such as job security , fear of job loss, obsolescence or retirement and numerous performance appraisals can create pressure and strain. Organizational structure climate: just being part of an organization can present threats to a persons sense of freedom and autonomy. It seems that the position in the organization has something to do with stress. However the research evidence its inclusive .some studies have found that position in the organization does make a difference in job stress. Nature of Profession: The research evidence suggests that certain kind of occupations cause greater stress. Than others in a study of comparative degree of stress amongst professionals Mishra(2001)collected data from 144 doctors and 82 nurses drawn from various hospitals , their result show that nurses experience greater stress in their job as compared to doctors. Predispositional stress: The degree of stress seems vary with the personality and predispositional factor. Some individuals experience greater stress than others. Doctors with internal locus of control reported higher organizational stress than the internal . (Kumar 1988) The below chart shows one example of the structure of a department in an organization, indicating typical causes of stress that may effect stress at certain levels in the structure, and particular. Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is not performing well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS As stated earlier Stress is caused by or reaction to the external events and bring about changes in our response and our general behavior. The presence of Stress can be estimated by the analysis of certain symptoms an individual shows. These symptoms can be divided into three different categories. They are Feelings ,Behavoiur and pshysological . When the individual experience Stress, one or more of the following symptoms can be exhibited: Feelings The individual becomes anxious about the outcomes and is scared. The person feels that he has got something to loose or something wrong will take place. In an anxious state the person does not want to be corrected or interrupted. He looks out for other areas where he can forget about the stress-causing event for a while. The person becomes irritable and moody. During high level of Stress the individual develops a negative frame of mind and suffers from low self-esteem. The person loses faith in his capabilities and is afraid of the failures. The individual does not have a focused approach and is not able to concentrate and is involved in his own plans and thoughts. Physiological and Behavioral Changes Speech problems. Impulsive Behavior Crying for no apparent reason. Laughing in a high pitch and nervous tone of voice. Grinding of teeth Increasing smoking and use of drugs and alcohol. Being accident-prone Perspiration /sweaty hands Increased heart beat Trembling/Sleeping problems Diarrhea / indigestion / vomiting/ nausea Butterflies in stomach Headaches Premenstrual tension Pain in the neck and or lower back Susceptibility to illness Loss of appetite Nervous ticks Dryness of throat and mouth. Tiring easily or over eating CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. The same level of stress affects different people in different ways each person has different ways of coping. Recognizing these personality types means that more focused help can be given. Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who is experiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers, irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under three categories: Individual consequences Organizational consequence Burnout Individual consequences: Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect the individual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly or indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individual consequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychological and medical. v Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders. v Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well-being from or felling depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom. v Medical consequences of stress affect a persons well being. According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks. Organizational consequences: Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on the organizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal and negative changes in attitude. Decline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop in productivity. Promotions and other organizational benefits get affected due to this. Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism. One main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at higher levels. Burnout:- A final consequence of stress has implementation for both people and organizations. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sources of satisfaction. STRESS AND YOUR PERFORMANCE So far, we have seen that stress is a negative experience. We have seen the short-term burnout. The Positive Effects of Pressure Sometimes, however, the pressures and demands that may cause stress can be positive in their effect. One example of this is where sportsmen and women flood their bodies with fight-or-flight adrenaline to power an explosive performance. Another example is where deadlines are used to motivate people who seem bored or unmotivated. We will discuss this briefly here, but throughout the rest of this site we see stress as a problem that needs to be solved. The Negative effect of pressure In most work situations jobs, our stress responses cause our performance to suffer. A calm, rational, controlled and sensitive approach is usually called for in dealing with most difficult problems at work: Our social inter-relationships are just too complex not to be damaged by an aggressive approach, while a passive and withdrawn response to stress means that we can fail to assert our rights when we should. Before we look further at how to manage stress and our performance, it is important to look at the relationship between pressure and performance in a little more detail, first by looking at the idea of the Inverted-U, and second by looking at Flow. This is the ideal state of concentration and focus that brings excellent performance. Pressure Performance the Inverted U The relationship between pressure and performance is explained in one of the oldest and most important ideas in stress management, the Inverted-U relationship between pressure and performance. The Inverted-U relationship focuses on peoples performance of a task. The left hand side of the graph is easy to explain for pragmatic reasons. When there is very little pressure on us to carry out an important task, there is little incentive for us to focus energy and attention on it. This is particularly the case when there may be other, more urgent, or more interesting, tasks competing for attention. As pressure on us increases, we enter the area of best performance. Here, we are able to focus on the task and perform well there is enough pressure on us to focus our attention but not so much that it disrupts our performance. The right hand side of the graph is more complex to explain. Negative Thoughts Crowd Our Minds We are all aware that we have a limited short-term memory: If you try to memorize a long list of items, you will not be able to remember more than six or eight items unless you use formal memory techniques. Similarly, although we have huge processing power in our brains, we cannot be conscious of more than a few thoughts at any one time. In fact, in a very real way, we have a limited attention capacity. As we become uncomfortably stressed, distractions, difficulties, anxieties and negative thinking begin to crowd our minds. This is particularly the case where we look at our definition of stress, i.e. that it occurs when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. These thoughts compete with performance of the task for our attention capacity. Concentration suffers, and focus narrows as our brain becomes overloaded. As shown in the figure, this is something of a slippery slope: the more our brain is overloaded, the more our performance can suffer. The more our performance suffers, the more new distractions, difficulties, anxieties and negative thoughts crowd our minds. Other research has shown that stress reduces peoples ability to deal with large amounts of information. Both decision-making and creativity are impaired because people are unable to take account of all the information available. This inability accounts for the common observation that highly stressed people will persist in a course of action even when better alternatives are available. It also explains why anxious people perform best when they are put under little additional stress, while calm people may need additional pressure to produce a good performance. Notes on the research behind the Inverted-U: While this is an important and useful idea, peoples evaluations of stress and performance are by necessity subjective. This has made it difficult to prove the Inverted-U idea formally. Also, for ease of explanation, we show a smooth curve here. In reality, different people have different shaped and positioned inverted-Us at different times and in different circumstances. This is all part of lifes rich tapestry. Entering a State of Flow When you are operating in your area of best performance, you are normally able to concentrate, and focus all of your attention on the important task at hand. When you do this without distraction, you often enter what Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi of Chicago University describes as a state of flow. This involves being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. Your whole being is involved, and youre using your skills to the utmost. You perform at your best in this state because you are able to focus all of your efforts, resources and abilities on the tasks at hand. While you are sufficiently motivated to resist competing temptations, you are not so stressed that anxieties and distractions interfere with clear thought. This is an intensely creative, efficient and satisfying state of mind. It is the state of mind in which, for example, the most persuasive speeches are made, the best software is developed, and the most impressive athletic or artistic performances are delivered. Helping Yourself to Get Into Flow One of the frustrations of management is that managers can feel that they lose the right to these periods of deep concentration when they must be readily available to others, and be able to deal with the constantly changing information, decisions and activities around them. Studies of good managers show that they rarely get more than a few minutes alone without distraction. This alone can be frustrating, and can contribute strongly to managerial stress. In jobs where concentration is a rare commodity, there are various solutions to creating the periods of flow that sustain good performance. Solutions include working from home, or setting aside parts of the day as quiet periods. Another solution might be to delegate the activities that require the greatest levels of concentration, allowing the manager to concentrate on problems as they arise, serving to create a flow of its own. One of the key aims of this site is to help you manage stress so that you can enter this state of flow, and deliver truly excellent performance in your career. MANAGING STRESS IN THE WORK PLACE Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understanding the nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourself and others. Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological and physical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress management enables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead of avoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-body relaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve their physical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully. Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to deal with stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in the work place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared toward organizations. Individual coping strategies: Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have been proposed. Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stress exhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strained relationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like. Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. The strategies used are: Exercise: One method by which individual can manage their stress is through exercise. People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to have heart attacks than inactive people are. Research also has suggested that people who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflict and slow greater optimism. Relaxation: A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation. Copying with stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt. Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regular vacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e. take regular breaks during their normal workday). A popular way of resting is to sit quietly with closed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon. Time management: Time management is an often recommended method for managing stress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if a person does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to time management is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done that day. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: critical activities that must be performed, important activities that should be performed, and optimal or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed, then of more of the important things done every day. ROLE MANAGEMENT: Some what related to time management in which the individual actively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict. SUPPORT GROUPS: This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain support group. A support group is simply a group of family member or friends with whom a person can spend time. Supportive family and friends can help people deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can be particularly useful during times of crisis. BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL: In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes exercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By consciously analyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employees can achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their own limits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to various stressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals control over the situations rather than being solely controlled by them. COGNITIVE THERAPY: The cognitive therapy techniques such as Ellis rational emotive model and Meichenbaums cognitive strategy fir modification have been used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress. COUNSELING: Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate a diverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives him a comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal the issues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of the inter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other and environment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa, the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life. One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individual can use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains like family, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry of experiences in these domains into the work life which might effect his occupation mental health. ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES: The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressors and prevent occurrence of potential stressors. Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees manage stress are institutional programs and collateral programs. Work Design Stress Management programs Work schedules Health promotions programs Culture Other programs Supervision Institutional programs: Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to established organizational mechanism for example, a properly designed job and word schedules can help ease stress. Shift work in particular can constantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the design of work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reduce stress. The organizations culture can also used to help to manage stress. The organization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix of work and nonworking activities. Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in overload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source of overload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts of work, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable. COLLATERAL PROGRAMS: In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, many organizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress program in an organizational program specifically created to help employees deal with stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs, health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose. STEPS TO BE TAKEN TO REDUCE STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Workplace stress is something with which we are all familiar. Stress is a factor in almost all walks of life, and people are accustomed to a level of anxiety or tension being part of the job. A number of steps can be taken to address workplace stress levels and reduce the likelihood of a stress claim in your workplace. 1. Identify sources of stress An important first step is to consider, in the context of your workplace, the most common sources of stress. As with any other health and safety risk, the sources of stress will vary between workplaces, and they will also vary from position to position. The main sources of stress for professionals may be quite different from those facing administrative staff. Stress claims often arise out of performance management and disciplinary action. Bullying is also a common source of stress claims. However, it is very likely that there are circumstances www.mindtools.com/stress/UnderstandStress/StressPerformance.htm particular to your workplace or the nature of your enterprise which may give rise to feelings of stress. Once you have identified the key sources of stress in your workplace, you can take steps to manage those situations to ensure that staff feels supported. 2. Identify work groups at risk In the course of identifying sources of stress in your workplace, you may form the view that some employees are more at risk given the nature of their roles. It is important that you consult with these employees as a group or with their health and safety representatives to ensure that you are able to reduce this risk. 3. Detailed and relevant position descriptions A meaningful, current position description is an important tool in ensuring that an employee understands his or her role. The position description should set out the employees reporting structure, and should broadly set out the sorts of duties that an employee will be expected to perform. This helps to prevent issues of authority and confusion about the scope of the role. 4. Management of workload The feeling of being overworked is a common source of stress claims. While staffing levels are obviously a factor, it is often difficult to increase staffing due to budgetary constraints. It may be more effective to address the factors which lead to employees feeling overworked. Again, these sorts of factors will vary from workplace to workplace, so it is important to consider your particular circumstances to determine the best way to manage workload. 5. Bullying walk the walk As well as having bullying policies and training, it is essential that your organisation is responsive to claims of bullying or harassment, and that any allegations are investigated promptly and thoroughly. 6. Genuine performance reviews Performance reviews are often taken casually, with the result that performance or behavioural problems are not raised with the employee until they reach a critical level. Performance reviews should give employees accurate feedback on their work and on any areas for improvement. However, the person conducting the performance review should always ensure that the performance review is conducted reasonably, against measurable targets and incorporating the employees views. Under the Accident Compensation Act 1985, an employee cannot make a Work Cover claim in relation to stress if the stress arises from: Reasonable actions taken in a reasonable manner to transfer, demote, discipline, redeploy, retrench or dismiss the employee; A reasonable decision by the employer not to provide some benefit in connection with the employment; or The expectation that any of the above will occur. This exception can apply to stress claims arising out of a performance review. If you can show that the performance review was reasonable and conducted reasonably, then an employee will be unable to make the performance review the subject of the claim. Following a properly drafted policy or procedure is a good way of ensuring that the action is seen to be reasonable in nature. However, if the person conducting the performance review is hostile or intimidating during the performance review, the employee can argue that the stress was caused by the nature of the behaviour, and not the review itself, so the exception will not apply. The same principles apply to performance management and disciplinary procedures. 7. Appropriate performance management procedures Performance management procedures should emphasise the early identification of poor performance to employees, setting reasonable timeframes for quantifiable improvement, providing training and other appropriate support to the employee and actively working with the employee to achieve that improvement. Such procedures should also include warnings, but greater emphasis should be on the support an organisation will provide. An employee undergoing performance management should not receive the impression that he or she is being disciplined. 8. Trained health and safety representatives It is important that employees who are experiencing stress feel that there are people available for them to talk to, and that their concerns will be taken into consideration. To this end, as well as to ensure that you satisfy your consultation duties under the OHS Act, there should be trained representatives in the workplace, and regular opportunities for those representatives to report to management. INTRODUCING STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. With this in mind, we can now look at how you can manage all of the stresses that your career will bring. We can see that there are three major approaches that we can use to manage stress: Action-oriented: In which we seek to confront the problem causing the stress, changing the environment or the situation; Emotionally-oriented: In which we do not have the power to change the situation, but we can manage stress by changing our interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it; and Acceptance-oriented: Where something has happened over which we have no power and no emotional control, and where our focus is on surviving the stress. Action-oriented approaches best where you have some control To be able to take an action-oriented approach, we must have some power in the situation. If we do, then action-oriented approaches are some of the most satisfying and rewarding ways of managing stress. These are techniques that we can use to manage and overcome stressful situations, changing them to our advantage. The early sections on the navigation bar to the left focus on action-oriented coping. These sections introduce skills that help you to manage your job actively, work well with your boss and co-workers, and change your surroundings to eliminate environmental stress. Emotionally-oriented approaches subtle but effective If you do not have the power to change a situation, then you may be able to reduce stress by changing the way you look at it, using an emotionally-oriented approach. Emotionally-oriented approaches are often less attractive than action-oriented approaches in that the stresses can recur time and again; however, they are useful and effective in their place. The section on explains some useful techniques for getting another perspective on difficult situations. Acceptance-oriented approaches when theres no valid alternative Sometimes, we have so little power in a situation that all we can do to survive it. This is the case, for example, when loved-ones die. In these situations, often the first stage of coping with the stress is to accept ones lack of power. The section on looks at building the buffers against stress that helps you through these difficult periods. Arguably, the section on also falls into this category. These different approaches to stress management address our definition of stress in different ways: the action-oriented techniques help us to manage the demands upon us and increase the resources we can mobilize; the emotionally oriented techniques help us to adjust our perceptions of the situation; and the acceptance-oriented techniques help us survive the situations that we genuinely cannot change. HOW TO MAXIMIZE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WHILE MINIMIZING EMPLOYEE STRESS Many managers and business owners mistakenly fear that reducing employee stress requires reducing productivity or creating a country club atmosphere, which in todays marketplace could be fatal. Nothing could be further from the truth; in fact, the opposite is true. When organizations manage in ways that bring out the best in people, they also reduce employee stress. Thats why most of Fortune magazines 100 Best Companies to Work For are industry leaders and enjoy high employee productivity. Employees in these companies are both happy and extremely productive. The key to maximizing productivity while minimizing stress is understanding the factors that influence whether someone working very hard will feel stressed out and burnt out, or whether they will feel motivated, excited, and committed. Scientific research on stress combined with best practices of high performance companies offers clear clues about the key factors that determine whether employees will be stressed out or energized by workplace demands. TO MAXIMIZE EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE, ORGANIZATIONS CAN: Give Employees As Much Control Over Their Jobs As Possible Research shows that control is the biggest factor in whether people feel stressed out or invigorated when facing a challenge. The more control people have over their work, the greater their job satisfaction, the higher their work quality, and the lower their stress level. Giving employees control includes giving them the power to make job-related decisions, the flexibility to organize their work in the way they find optimal, and the authority to find make improvements on how their job is done. Making this work requires providing employees with the training, coaching, and information they need to make intelligent decisions. Communicate Clearly and Often About Everything Important One of the greatest sources of employee stress is not knowing not knowing about changes taking place in the company, not knowing their supervisors job and performance expectations, and not knowing if they are doing a good job. Communicating clearly in these areas not only reduces employee stress, it also helps them do a far better job. Talk With Your Employees About What Makes Your Company Great, How You Bring Value To Your Customers, and How Your Employees Make That Possible People want to feel part of something great, and they want to feel that they are making a significant contribution to that greatness. When they feel this way, they not only become energized by challenges, theyre also more able to endure difficulties without becoming burnt out. You can put this principle into action by making sure you always deliver a high quality product or service, by talking with employees about the value your company provides to your customers, and explaining how them doing high quality work makes it all possible. Make Sure Supervisors Know How to Bring Out the Best in People Supervisors play a huge role in employee morale, performance, and stress level. Supervisors who know how to provide guidance, support, and encouragement minimize employee stress. Supervisors with poor management skills or with personal problems, not only cant help employees deal with stressful times, they themselves are a tremendous source of stress. The time and financial resources you invest in selecting and training managers will pay huge dividends in reducing employee stress, increasing productivity, and minimizing turnover. Encourage Employees to Talk Freely and Support One Another An all work and no play environment burns out people quickly. Having a workplace where co-workers can talk without worrying about getting into trouble, is especially important in high pressure jobs. Encouraging connections among co-workers also reduces stress, because having social support reduces the negative effects of stressful situations. According to a large body of scientific research, having supportive friends and family members is one of the most important factors influencing a persons ability to handle stress and major life crises without becoming physically or emotionally compromised. Help Employees Design Their Jobs To Be As Rewarding As Possible Although not all jobs are equally rewarding and fulfilling, much can be done to make even the least desirable ones more enjoyable. The more opportunity employees have to make decisions, use their mind, and take responsibility, the more fulfilled they will be. To make this work, employees need to be involved in the job enrichment process. If changes are made without their input, this will most likely backfire. If employees have worked for years in an environment where they were told what to do, it might take time for them to learn how to take a more responsible and active approach to their jobs. Improve Your Hiring and Orientation Process Because the first few months on the job are often the most stressful, new employees are often the most vulnerable to accidents and injuries. For companies that have a sink or swim approach to new employees, these first few months is also a time of high turnover. The more effective youre hiring, new hire orientation, and training is, the more likely new employees will be well-suited, and prepared, for their jobs. Make Sure Employees Have the Resources and Training to Do Their Jobs Well When people feel inadequate, when they feel ill-equipped to handle a challenge, they get stressed out. If employees dont have the tools, technology, time, staff, or training to do their jobs well, they are going to be stressed out, and wont be able to work at their true potential. Investing in these areas pays huge dividends both in terms of reduced stress-related costs, and in increased productivity. SUGGESTIONS TO REDUCE STRESS ON INDIVIDUAL BASIS Take time out: Working long hour without a break for lunch or a cup of tea is counterproductive. Dont skip lunch! Go for a walk . Even half an hour in a different environment can make you feel refreshed and better able to deal with what is happening. Make time for you. Take control: Define your priorities and attend to the important and satisfying things .Explore alternatives .Look for new ways of doing things Indetify things that you can rely on to. Relaxations techniques can help you manage stress in long term .Try yoga or listen to a piece of music that you like that relaxes you. Have a massage or try Aromatherapy. Give yourself a treat. Set your limits: Avoid saying yes when infect you mean no! do not set or accept targets which you cannot achive. If you set unrealistic targets , chances are that you will face negative strees if you fail to achive them . one cannot be perfect at everything. Use time well: Are you always late for things ? Do you get frustrated knowing you could have done a better job if you had organized your time better? Learn how to manage your time properly. Use time positively to move towards your goals in life. Balance recreation or time for your self and friends with work. Talk to someone: When we are stressed we can feel very isolated ,as if we are the only ones feeling that way. Talking to colleagues can help you share some of the pressure. Sharing your concerns with colleagues or partners helps resolve misunderstandings or frustrations. Listen and develop co-operation rather than competition. Exercise: Exercise can help relieve stress and help to add balance to your life. It can be a great stress reliever and it can be fun .Go for a walk at lunch time. Smile: See the funny sides of the tings. Having a joke or laughing, crying and talking helps release some of the tensions of stress rather than keep them bottled up. Recongnize stress: Recognize the signs of stress. You may feel anxious, irritable, nervious, depressed, confused or others may notice you are short tempered, achieving less, unable to concentrate, losing interest in work or leisure activities, drinking too much or eating too much sugary foods. unable to sleep. physically you may notice frequent headaches, tension in the neck and shoulders ,indigestion or upset stomach ,back pain ,you cold hands or feet ,your heart races for no reason and you may even have difficulty breathing. Eat well: Eating healthy food builds the foundation of good health which help handle the pressures of life .do not be tempted to comfort eat. Avoid using alcohol, caffeine or drugs, which will only exacerbate stress in the long run. Make sure you get enough sleep: Take at least 7 hours of sleep .a sound sleep can help in relaxing your body and mind .after a stressful day of work sound sleep will refresh you and help you in starting a new day in a enthusiastic manner. STRESS CONTROL PROGRAMMES IN COMPANIES Firms are now thinking out of the box to manage employee stress, lest it begins to hurt performance. At BAUSCH LOMB, managing employee stress is all about setting achievable sales targets and following a comprehensive annual KRA or goal setting exercise and twice-a-year performance appraisals. This ensures that there are no residual feelings leading to stress. Companies have started recognizing stress at the workplace as a significant business concern and have been bringing proactive measures to provide a healthy environment. KANORIA CHEMICALS AND INDUSTRIES (KCI), for instance, believes in improving the time management skills of its staff to help them achieve work-life balance. Critical activities, such as goal setting, target deployment communications, incentive clarity and performance feedback, if not done properly would lead to high stress levels. This could further be potential reason for quitting the organization. Mitigating negative stress is what companies focus on in their stress management programmes. Some follow Art of Living courses, others are enrolling employees in Yoga and health workshops. Some like Aricent Technologies have put de-stressing tips on their intranets. At EMAMI stress management is rooted in the HR mission and objective. The group has spiritual discourses by well known spiritual leaders and through reputed organisations like Brahma Kumaris and Art of Living, yoga sessions at offsites and regular exercises at the office gym. We even encourage employees to avail themselves of their annual leave. At many companies, Art of Living is the preferred medium for stress busting. Aricent has been conducting these courses since 2001, and says that though it has made the course voluntary in the last two years, there has been no drop in participation. KCI follows the stress management programme not only ensure employee satisfaction but also reduce the probability of attrition. At INFOGAIN, stress management training comprises yoga classes, dance classes, aerobics and fun zones, which are short breaks from hectic schedules. The thrice-a-week classes are held by experts and a panel of physicians is available for consultation in the office. Companies maintain that stress indicator awareness and knowledge of appropriate stress management techniques make a huge difference in the productivity of the employees. XANSA has an all-encompassing stress management programme that includes motivational talk sessions, pranic healing sessions, yoga classes, recreational activities like table tennis, carrom and chess, social get-togethers such as choreography, fashion shows, collage competitions and painting competitions and no graveyard shifts. Day care centres and games on the intranet also help in beating stress. Such de-stressing programmes have helped the organisation to find out the kinds of problems or issues being faced by employees at the workplace. All these companies are organizing the stress management programmes thus to reduce the stress and increase the performance of the employees. It has been realized that if the employees stress level is too high, their work may become impaired, and the hostility they posses would get reflected in the quality of their service. In such a scenario, employees who suffer the burden of having to perform can simply crack. They may actually develop ailments like heart problems, high blood pressure and peptic ulcers. Therefore, we felt the need to incorporate certain tools as part of our HR programme to control and manage employee stress. COMPANIES TACKLE STRESS AT WORK: WEBMART Award-winning print management company, WEBMART, who claim to live by the maxim, do well and do good are celebrating National Stress Awareness Day today with their first yoga class for employees at the Bicester-based office. The yoga classes take place in Webmarts calming chill-out room, which forms part of their brand new gym, equipped with self-powered exercise machines. All employees are encouraged to attend the weekly lunchtime sessions, which are conducted by a fully trained local yoga instructor. Webmarts Geraldine Lay, who organised the yoga classes, says, I think its essential that companies provide opportunities like this for their staff. These days everyones multi-tasking and juggling so many things at once that they need some time out clear their minds, which can help to improve their performance at work. Increasingly theres a stigma attached to the idea of taking a lunch break when theres so much to be done, and providing yoga classes at lunchtime gives employees that well-needed chill-out time away from their desks. The International Stress Management Association (ISMA) is encouraging everyone to acknowledge National Stress Awareness Day and to think about how unproductive and demoralizing stress can be. Acknowledging the things that put undue pressure on your life and then doing something positive and constructive to manage that pressure can cut stress off at its roots. Yoga is been acknowledged to bring about stress relief due to combined techniques of controlled breathing, meditation, physical movement, mental imagery, and stretching. ANALYSIS: It can be observed from the above article that the companies now a days are more focused towards the problems faced by their employees related to the stress. The companies are taking various steps to overcome this problem. E.g. In the company WEBMART, the management has arranged yoga classes for their employees. They used various techniques like controlled breathing, meditation etc. which helps the employees to feel relief through stress. Thus, the employees feel fresher and give their best. This leads to increase in the performance of the employees. BIBLIOGRAPHY https://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=https://www.orghealth.co.uk/uploads/images/Organisational%2520Health%2520Strategy.gifimgrefurl=https://www.orghealth.co.uk/Services/stress-management-and-prevention/strategy-for-stress/ https://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=https://www.orble.com/images/stress21.pngimgrefurl=https://www.livinghealthfully.com/occupational-stress-management/ https://www.docstoc.com/docs/13898011/Stress-Management-Project https://www.lifepositive.com/mind/work/corporate-management/corporate-mantra.asp www.mindtools.com/stress/UnderstandStress/StressPerformance.htm www.humannatureatwork.com/Workplace-Stress-2.htm
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Today I am giving an informative speech on Buddhism. Now, quot;informativequot; is the key word here. I just want to reasure everyone that I am simply going to explain some of the philosophy of Buddhism. I am not, however, trying to sway your beliefs or views on life in ANY way. Instead, Im going to share with you some of the basic things that I know, and however you choose to use the information, if at all, is totally up to you. In fact, one of the strongest beliefs of a Buddhist, is that their quot;way of lifequot; is NEVER forced on anyone. To shove it down someones throught would contradict almost everything the Buddha had to say. To start, I wanna clear up some simple, misinterpretations that some of you may or may not haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Buddhists consider it the job of scientists to explain origins of the universe and life. So there is no contradiction with scientific discovery. Although most buddhists say the world creates and recreates itself millions of times every fraction of a second. After Death, as Buddhist would say that there is no transmigration of individual souls, but through the law of karma, a persons wholesome or unwholesome intentions become imprinted in the mind. Negative mental states persist through continual rebirth until ones intentions become wholesome. In a nut shell, this means for all the things you do or intend to do, that are concidered harmful to others, karma will balance it out in this or other lifetimes. This is also known as reincanation. Once fully enlightened (however many lifetimes it takes for karma to balance), one is liberated from rebirths, reaching a state of selflessness, resulting in an untimate bliss (what Buddhists call Nirvana) and one becomes Buddha, or quot;one with Buddhaquot;. Some Buddhists, especially modern western, dont emphasize or believe in rebirth. People have free will to commit wrongs or rights. Evil doing may result when egoism, cravings, attachments, and ignorance are expressed as greed, hatred, and violence, which, if not realized, results in rebirth. For a Buddhist, Enlightenment is an individual journey to Nirvana (or complete bliss)--liberation from suffering and cycles of rebirth. This is acheived by what BuddhistsShow MoreRelatedBuddhism Speech Essay852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesToday I am giving an informative speech on Buddhism. Now, informative is the key word here. I just want to reasure everyone that I am simply going to explain some of the philosophy of Buddhism. I am not, however, trying to sway your beliefs or views on life in ANY way. Instead, Im going to share with you some of the basic things that I know, and however you choose to use the information, if at all, is totally up to you. In fact, one of the strongest beliefs of a Buddhist, is that their wayRead MoreBuddhism(Informative Speech)958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInformative Outline Topic: The Buddhism General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about some main beliefs of one of the most popular religions, the Buddhism. Thesis: From Buddhism to any individual, the Buddhism and Buddhist beliefs become one of the most influential religions in the world. i. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Ã¢â¬Å"God said, let there be light: and there was light.Ã¢â¬ For Christians, Jesus is their only God. However, as the founder of another famousRead MoreThe Impact Of Theravada Buddhism On Myanmar1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTheravada Buddhism is one of two major sects of Buddhism and is practiced primarily in Southeast Asia. Its practice began in Sri Lanka and spread to Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia, and has influence in the West today. In the eleventh century C.E., King Anawratha established The Myanmas kingdom, it was at this time that he converted to Theravada Buddhism, despite a large Tantric Buddhist population in the kingdom. From then on, Myanmar has been known as a Theravada Buddhist country. As with most religionsRead More Siddhartha the Life of a Prophet Essay1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBuddhism was brought to light about 500 BC by Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism has not been described as a religion as such but rather as philosophy. The story of Siddhar tha Gautama and how he brought Buddhism to limelight is quite moving. In this essay the thoughts of Siddhartha Gautama are explained and how the society reacted to his arguments. 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Riya Roy HON 105 Will McNeil 04/15/14 Paper One Contemplating Death Both philosophers and non-philosophers stand on a level of equality with respect to death. There are no experts on death, for there is nothing to know about it. Even those who study the death process have no edge on the rest of us. We are all equals in thinking about death, and we all begin and end thinking about it from a position of ignorance. One trouble with discussing this topic is the instinctive fear of death. We tend to avoid death in our thoughts and actions. However, if we could forget our fears for a minute, we could see more clearly how interesting the concept actually is from a more detached point of view. One of the most interesting views on death comes from an ancient Greek philosopher, Socrates. In the texts that are going to be analyzed in this essay, Apology and Phaedo, are the retellings of words and thoughts of Socrates by Plato, a pupil and admirer of Socrates. Both texts lecture about the topic of death and though both are the thoughts of Socrates at different t imes of his life, they have similar and contrasting views on the outlook of death. The Apology is the most authentic account that has been preserved of Socrates defense of himself as it was presented before the Athenian Council. Socrates accusers are poets, craftsmen, politicians and orators who accuse him of corrupting the youth by making them lose confidence in the government that has jurisdiction over them. Socrates speaksShow MoreRelatedThe Apology And Phaedo By Socrates914 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the Apology and Phaedo, as Socrates prepares to die his friends are concerned about him and why he does not fear death, but rather looks forward to this. Plato through Socrates makes this statement of his beliefs of death and what lies beyond this final barrier of consciousness. Plato believes that we live on through our souls and into another body. Socrates faces death with excitement because in his eyes to die is to practice perfect philosophy. This comes from his Argument of Opposites and theRead MorePlato s Apology And The Apology1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn thi s paper I will discuss how Plato s Apology and Phaedo have difference ideas of what it means to be a philosopher. I will explain how in the Apology, the philosopher is wise in how he/she understand that they are wise because they know that they don t know, and in Phadeo the philosopher knowledgable and are concern in gaining more knowledge. In Plato s Apology we learn about Socrates life and who he really is. In platos Apology a philosopher is a wise person because he understands thatRead MoreArguments On Death And How The Human Condition1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeath and How They Relate to the Human Condition In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Five DialoguesÃ¢â¬ , Socrates argues what he believes death is and what it will bring, and then urges humans to not fear death and perhaps even embrace it. Though the arguments both aim to dispel the fear of death, only one, the Phaedo, truly provides insight into the meaning of death, the preparation for it, and goes on to expound the human condition. The Phaedo does this in a detailed way by offering a strong argument that provides answersRead MoreTry to Persuade Socrates Friends to Save Him Against His Will1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTry to persuade the Socrates`s friends to save him, against his will. Socrates Is one of the most colorful figures of the ancient Greek world, who the strangeness of privacy life have always been of special philosophical and political science. He was convict to death because he does not believe in God and corrupted the youth people to do the same. In Plato`s dialogue Crito, Socrates spent his last time in the prison. Crito is coming to save Socrates and have plans how toRead MoreThe Comparison Of Socrates And The Death Of Plato And Plato1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdrawing and different pieces of art to the Bible. Today we will be discussing the The Death of Socrates (Apology Crito and Phaedo) and the author Plato. Plato was a student of Socrates. In these dialogues, he narrates the events leading up to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ death. To begin I will be discussing the reasons why Plato wrote these dialogues. Leading into the discussion of each dialogue and the importance each work. Socrates was a man who in these dialogues discusses how during his life he knew that he did not knowRead MorePhilosophies Relationship to Death Essay971 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath Apology and Phaedo Knowledge of Death versus Belief in a Soul In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Apology, Socrates says that he knows nothing of death while in Phaedo he discusses many of his beliefs on death and its philosophical ramifications. From this simple perspective it may seem as though he is contradicting himself although he, after further investigation, is not. Philosophically, the idea of death and an afterlife can be looked at from multiple non-contradictory viewpoints. Socrates talks of hisRead MoreEssay about Socrates vs Gilgamesh1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJoe Arce 19 Sept 2011 Socrates Vs. Gilgamesh SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of death in the Phaedo, Crito, and Apology is complex. His argument tries to prove that philosophers, of all people, are in the best state to die or will be in the best state after life because of the life they lead. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ views are sharply contrasted in The Epic of Gilgamesh. In fact, he would probably say that Gilgamesh had not lived the proper kind of li fe and his views of life, and death would lead to an unsettled existence in theRead MoreThe Death Of Socrates And Jacques-Louis David1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof Socrates was painted by the French painter Jacques-Louis David during the Neo-classical era in 1787. The painting illustrates the execution the Philosopher Socrates as told by Plato in his Phaedo. In 399 B.C, the Athenian court had put Socrates on trial for talking about things in the sky and below the earth, corrupting the minds of the youth, and not believing in the gods, but in other spiritual things. Socrates was then sentenced to death by drinking a poisoned hemlock. In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Phaedo DeathRead MoreThe Body And The Soul1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Analysis of the Distinctions of the Body and the Soul in the Philosophy of Socrates This philosophical study will define the distinctions of the body and the soul as defined in the philosophy of Socrates. In the Phaedo, Socrates defines the important distinction between the Ã¢â¬ visibleÃ¢â¬ body and the Ã¢â¬Å"invisibleÃ¢â¬ substance of the soul. Socrates defines the temporal and changing nature of the visible body, which is impermanent. In contrast to this view, the soul is a higher form of incomposite energyRead MoreUnderstanding Philosophy and Its Benefits1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUnderstanding Philosophy and its Benefits By: Anonymous Understanding Philosophy and its Benefits 1 Many of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogues such as the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo are based upon the same reoccurring theme, the defense of the study of philosophy. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogues notable for their depth in a relatively narrow framework, attempt to argue the benefits of philosophical reasoning through essence, knowledge and truth. To understand the benefits of philosophy one must pose the question
Those black eyes have the power to kill. A mere glimpse of those eyes is enough to paralyze every muscle in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body. They do not stir; they do not move. Remaining perfectly placid, those eyes mock every trespasser with deathly silence. Preventing me from a perfect state of equilibrium, my oversized backpack added to the force of gravity as I stood there lookingÃ¢â¬âjust looking. I quickly learned how intimidating a four-story, brick building is to a Catholic school girl coming from a class of thirty students. My hands began to shake, and my feet appeared to be cemented into the ground. A loud ring pierced me to the bonesÃ¢â¬âwelcome to high school. Heart pounding, mind screamingÃ¢â¬âthis is it. This is do or die. The time has come for me to face my fears and begin my journey. I took a deep breath and began my way up the seemingly endless stairs. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Is Never too Dark or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Approaching the monstrous brown doors was one of the scariest, most defining moments of my life. Although I longed to seize my past between my fingers, I had finally reached that vital transitioning moment between adolescence and adulthood, and it was time to extend my hand to unlatch my future. Unfastening the doors, I opened the first passageway to the next four years of my life. I thrust myself forward and embark on my adventure. I start off slowly, allowing my confidence and comfort levels to build. After trading in my extra-large backpack for one of a more manageable size, I stood straighter and my smile widened. Erect and confident, I was ready to confront anything that sophomore year threw my way. I nurtured my high-school experience in the palm of my hand and realized I could mold it however I desired. I made new friends, joined teams, affected organizations, and developed close relationships with my teachers. Slowly but surely, I began to break the barrier of shyness that had previously surrounded me. With every passing second, my speed increases. I am on top of the world. No one can touch me; no one can bring me down. I am one with my surroundings, and everything around me is working in perfect harmony. The evolution from under-to upperclassman is truly a coming of age in any high-school studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. For me, this was my year of growth and self-discovery. It was then, for example, when I found my first job. As a waitress, I learned how to deal with diverse personalitiesÃ¢â¬âan important lesson for any aspect of life. I also discovered my knack for chemistry and love of writing. I was no longer a shy underclassman; I was now a role model who intended to live up to my title by always remaining true to myself. I released my feet from the imprisoning bindings of my snowboard. Those black eyes would not kill me. I conquered my first double-black diamond. As a senior, I struggle with the idea of closing this chapter of my life. Part of me dreads reaching the last page, but part of me is enthusiastic about turning it over and finding a clean sheetÃ¢â¬âa fresh start. Beyond the books, high school has taught me to be an independent, hard working, and caring person. I have strived to be the best version of myself, and I am proud of what I have accomplished. No trail is ever too icy; no slope is ever too steep. I am prepared for any challenge that comes my way. I cannot wait to take the chair lift back up to a new beginning, a more advanced trail. I am more than ready to begin college.
Question: To what extent does art respond to, or is shaped by, the technology that enables it? To what extent have advanced and accessible digital technologies, such as websites, digital photography, and YouTube, changed the relationship between art and technology? Are these technologies reshaping our attitudes toward artists? Answer: Art influences the digital technology as it makes the contemporary nature more attractive. The artists get more time to focus on creativity and contemplation with reduction in actual execution of artwork (Thomson, Purcell, Rainie, 2013). The social media sites and digital technologies have blurred the lines between real and virtual experience. Our attitude towards artists is getting reshaped as the flame of creativity is dying out as the artists imagination is getting frozen (Woolf, 2016). References Thomson, K., Purcell, K., Rainie, L. (2013).Section 6: Overall Impact of Technology on the Arts.Pew Research Center: Internet, Science Tech. Retrieved 27 July 2016, from https://www.pewinternet.org/2013/01/04/section-6-overall-impact-of-technology-on-the-arts/ Woolf, A. (2016).The impact of technology in art. London: Raintree.
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Internet Marketing and its Evolution Introduction Need essay sample on "Internet Marketing and its Evolution" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Internet marketing is an activity of carrying out business transactions using computer networks that is selling and buying of goods and services through the utilization of the concept of internet applications. It follows the basic principles of traditional commerce but in this case, buyers and sellers swap or exchange commodities through the internet for money. This has offered maximum convenience to buyers and sellers alike. Buyers and sellers in this form of internet marketing get the opportunity to compare prices, quality of the products and other factors before deciding to undertake any business transaction. With internet marketing sourcing of goods and services internationally has become simple and has increased inter reliance between countries in supply of goods and services. With globalization being the form of contemporary business, internet marketing has taken the center stage in marketing activities and research indicate that it has yielded the best results in terms of increase in profit levels as a result of increased market share by organizations through the use of internet. (Mark, 2001) The use of internet as a marketing tool College Students Usually Tell EssayLab professionals:Who wants to write paper for me?Essay writers advise: Rely On Our Help In Essay WritingEssay Company Write Essays For Money Assignment Helper Online Write My Essay Online For any business, the main goal is to increase its market share, increase relative industry growth, enhance competitiveness, and enhance its survival and growth in the ever changing business environment. In the contemporary business world, information technology (IT) particularly the use of internet marketing has increasingly become essential in order to explore new markets and to widen the firms financial bases. More advancement of information technology is being witnessed, which is providing better solutions to ever upcoming challenges in marketing activities. Internet marketing remains an important feature in building organizational value and especially enhancing marketing activities. IT and particularly the utilization of internet marketing concept have had the capacity to change product nature, their processes, change industries and companies and even affect competition itself. The introduction of e commerce, which can be defined as selling and buying of goods or services using electronic media for example, the internet has seen an increase of volume of goods and services being bought and sold. Internet marketing includes transfer of money using electronic means, e-marketing, inventory management, online marketing and many others. Many companies are embracing internet marketing in one way or another in order to remain competitive and international in scope. The use of internet marketing has a lot of advantages and that is the reason why many have opted to transact business using the internet mainly referred to as online business. The use of internet provides a direct link between the two businesses; it is possible that any party can update their e-catalogue anytime they want especially if a new product has been launched in the market or when prices are to be adjusted. This will result in reduction of expenses which could be incurred if the traditional methods were used. It also provides extensive search capabilities to the businesses in order to keep record of any threat in the market. (King, Lee, and Vineland, 2004) Internet marketing also reduces the competition gap between businesses. This can be in terms of reduced advertising or marketing costs. It also provides a level field that will allow small and growing organizations to have an equal footing with multinational giants in the same sector. This means that all these companies will have to compete on availability, quality or prices of the products. With the use of internet marketing there is usually an unlimited market place that businesses can achieve. In addition, there is the effect of extended customer base that will ensure that the business will meet other customers electronically. The internet for example gives customers the opportunity to stay in their offices and perform their transactions. It really does not matter the distances, time or resources availability, it provides a global outlook. Internet marketing is one of the cheapest ways of doing business. Business to business communication costs are reduced greatly when the two companies adopt this concept as a medium of transaction. Costs such as; phone calls, purchasing costs, traveling costs, inventory costs, data entry costs, faxing among others reduce the amount the transaction costs which is beneficial to the growth of any business. Since all transactions carried out through internet are computerized and are only accessed through the computer, it promotes the automation of all operations and the automation come with all sorts of benefits including security, improved authorization features, direct checks and minimal errors and omissions. . (Mowery and Rosenberg, 1989) Online marketing is based on the technology of internet and the usage of personal computers. In earlier days companies used power full computers to computerize millions of transactions carried out every day. Through internet branches of the same organization can develop networks, through which they could keep up to date with business progress and could improve service provision to customers. Internet marketing is relatively a new advancement in the field of marketing even then there are many business and customers who have switched from traditional to online/internet marketing. The reason being quite obvious, the convenience and flexibility it provides cannot be ignored. Managers of different organizations need to ensure good planning by availing resources in terms of finances and skilled employees who can provide technological advancement. It is important for the organization structures of the company to be well organized to create an enabling environment for the company to succeed in internet marketing. Leadership any company should be taken seriously, good leaders inspire their juniors and also ensure that they take the lead in embracing new technology in the company. Through this, the company will be able to attain its objective; of using internet marketing to improve the company sales. The management should use control to come with measures that can ensure that the company benefits a lot from internet marketing. Though, internet marketing is full of advantages to the company, without proper control from the management, the company will not be able to realize full benefits of this concept. . (Philip, 1996) Evolution of Internet Marketing The history of internet marketing can be traced back to the 1960s when the Electronic Data Interchange was developed. It was specifically tailored to conduct business information and electronic transactions the use of internet evolved through various steps and in 1984 through the ASC X12, it transformed itself to the Mosaic browser which allowed better and efficient access to electronic commerce browser. The kind of internet marketing got a boost in the 20th century when ICT became the medium of communication, learning, education and marketing. Internet marketing became fully utilized in the last one decade especially given the fact that most sectors went online including online banking and online sourcing of products among others. Internet was first developed by the United States Department of Defense in the early 1960s. Since then, it is believed that there are almost over three hundred thousand networks which are spread all over the nations of the world. It has been the most exciting development in the world of computers today. Internet refers to international network of computers worldwide with many people accessing the data available. By ensuring that computers in an organization are networked with internet, the company stands to benefit a lot. Besides accessing files on other computers within the organization, one can run software located on all the other computers enabled. This therefore makes communication among the employees in the organization effective and efficient. (Mowery and Rosenberg, 1989) Another feature of internet use in the instant access of material concerning any topic imaginable to anybody Internet users can also be able to converse with all people all over the world thus boosting international marketing. Internet has globalized this world and also internet marketing is considered global in itself. Difference in cities or countries even continents does not affect internet marketing and recent developments indicate that there has been great disregard to national boundaries. Transaction is very fast and effective; many online business sites now offer sophisticated tools to help consumers manage all their assets more effectively and conveniently. There is another significance of internet marketing which is that of less paper work has to be done and once you have entered information, it doesn't need to be re-entered for similar consequent checks, and future payments can be programmed to occur automatically. The old days ways of marketing was not only time consuming but also costly especially to a wide range of customers. The current internet technology is the best as it is currently the widely used distribution channel that is being used in the market. Since nearly every household in the world today has a computer and most of them are currently connected to the internet, it makes an opportunity for the marketers to reach a high percentage of the target consumers which boosts their marketing activities. The internet is a bi-directional communication tool which is ironically the least expensive way of advertising compared to other types of advertising such as radio, television, magazines and news papers. Internet marketing offers great benefits for businesses in this century; increased effectiveness, wide range of audiences, reduced advertising, marketing, and transportation costs, improved exposure, increased popularity, among others. (Philip, 1996) The potential in internet marketing is high, the internet economy is not falling and many businesses that have taken up this concept are doing well. Thus, the projection that the organizations will continue doing well through internet marketing is high. According to research reports suggests that, the future of internet marketing is emphasized as bright. In fact many organizations are witnessing an increased volume of sales as a result of taking up internet and particularly internet marketing. Internet marketing is not only selling products on the internet, it is companies incorporating their businesses procedures to the internet, enhancing them and boosting their profits levels. Conclusion Internet marketing has become the way of doing business in this modern world and business activities has been made simple and interesting with the use of this concept. It has gained roots because of its simplicity and convenience in the ordinary course of businesses and it has been utilized by both Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Multi-national Corporations (MNCs). Industry players agree the internet marketing is going to continue to grow. According to research carried out by Center for Research in Electronic Commerce, internet marketing is predicted to revolutionaries industries in the 21st century. Economy of the internet continues to increase robustly. Many companies both new and well established continue getting profits through internet marketing. Internet marketing still has a big market which is not tapped. (King, Lee, and Vineland, 2004) As many business analysts points out, it effects on industrial economy may be compared to the importance occurrence when the world shifted from agricultural to industrialization in the seventeenth century. Internet marketing over the internet is seen as a more informal way of doing business between two or more companies and especially formulation of different types of contracts. In general, internet marketing does not allow for face to face communication between the traders and therefore the two groups of people may not effectively agree on some things but more transactions can be carried out between the two groups of people. Today cheap labor and availability of raw material is not enough in world competition, technology advancement that leads to production of high quality products, which are more reliable and flexibly on the market is the key issues of competition. Internet marketing through utilization of modern Informational Technologies is an important aspect in any organization; it helps in product advancement, better service delivery and lowers cost of production. In todays economy internet marketing continue to be very relevant to companies as they struggle to invent cheaper and more efficient to the market. Internet marketing has modernized the way business is being done and opened up new challenges for the managements of the companies. (King, Lee, and Vineland, 2004) The management of the company needs to familiarize itself with this concept of internet marketing in order to be a motivating force of the organization prosperity. The future for internet marketing is considered to be bright, as studies show more and more organizations are turning to internet marketing particularly through the utilization of internet as a way of carrying out business transactions. References King, D., Lee, J., and Vineland, D. (2004): Electronic Commerce; a Managerial Perspective, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Mark, D. (2001): Principles and Practice of Marketing; 3rd Edition of Chartered Institute of Marketing, Washington, U.S Mowery, D. C and Rosenberg, N. (1989): Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Philip, K. (1996): Principles of Marketing: Stages of customer relationships. 4th European Edition, Prentice Hall Harlow (UK)